Paddling in Muddy Waters

The Role of P3s for International Student Enrollment and English Language Program Management


  • Marigold Holmes University of Minnesota
  • Christopher Johnstone University of Minnesota


International student enrollment has become an essential priority of higher education institutions in the United States for both internationalization and financial reasons. At times, English language programming can be provided to students to support their academic success on campus. These two functions (recruitment and English language programming) require staffing and management. An increasing number of public universities have turned to private companies to provide such services, thus establishing private-public partnerships (P3s) for service delivery, which is examined in this case. 



2020-12-02 — Updated on 2022-08-17